Exploring College Biology Students’ Understanding of
Experimental Design
Meena KHARATMAL1)*, Mayur GAIKWAD2), Aashutosh MULE3), Jaikishan ADVANI4)
1)Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, TIFR, 2)Elphinstone College,
3)Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, 4) Learning Links Foundation, India
(Received: 01 September 2021; Accepted for publication: 14 March 2022)
Keywords: experimental design, experimentation, model organisms, scientific method,
undergraduate students
* Author for correspondence: Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Tata Institute of
Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400088, INDIA. E-mail: